In 1989, an agreement was signed between the United States and Russia, but it has not yet been ratified by Russia. Arctic Council, the Arctic Council`s first SAR exercise in Whitehorse, Canada, available on www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/oceans/search-and-rescue/209-sar-exercise-whitehorse. Access to November 20, 2012. Arctic SAR Agreement, Article 12, paragraph 1. The SAR Standard Agreement in Appendix I of Volume 1 of the IAMSAR Manual states that “each party […] Or fund their own activities related to this agreement, unless the parties have agreed otherwise in advance and, in all cases, do not allow reimbursement to delay the response to those in distress” (section 4, point f). This provision explains, to some extent, the reasons for the funding provisions in SAR agreements. Please note that “the provisions of this agreement, with the exception of paragraph 1 of the annex of this agreement, do not affect the rights and obligations of the parties under agreements between them that are in effect on the effective date of this agreement.” Arctic SAR Agreement, Section 16. The Arctic Search and Rescue Agreement is the first binding agreement negotiated under the auspices of the Arctic Council. The treaty reflects the growing economic importance of the Arctic as a result of improved accessibility due to global warming.
  Guardian (2012) Military rivalry in the Arctic could trigger a cold war on 21 June 2012. www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jun/05/arctic-military-rivalry-cold-war. access to 1 June 2013 for arctic air and rescue and maritime search and rescue cooperation, Nuuk, Greenland, on 12 May 2011, came into force on 19 January 2013, i.e. 50 ILM 1119; www.arctic-council.org available. Access to September 30, 2011 (Arctic SAR Agreement). Information on the status of the agreement is available on the website of the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Contract Rights Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (no date). Kao S-M, Pearre NS, Firestone J (2012) Adoption of the Arctic Search and Rescue Agreement: a shift from the Arctic regime to a difficult legal basis? Maritime Policy 36 (3): 832-838 Keep in mind that, although in many cases SAR agreements are concluded bilaterally for sub-regions, but regional sar plans have been developed not only by the states in the region, but also by other states participating in the process. See International Maritime Organization, Reports on Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) and the Global Maritime Disss and Safety System (GMDSS) Conferences (1981-1998), Secretariat Note, COMSAR 5/INF.2 (2000).
Any party to this agreement may, if necessary, request cooperation with States that are not parties to this agreement, which may contribute to the conduct of search and rescue operations in accordance with existing international agreements. 11 In addition, Norway and Russia are considering signing an agreement on specific border crossing provisions, which will benefit the inhabitants of the border region. Ilulissat Statement, Ilulissat, Greenland, 28 May 2008; Arctic Council, Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report, 6ff. It is interesting to note that the Russian Federation proposed a legal agreement within the Emergency, Prevention, Preparedness and Response Working Group in 2005 under the Arctic Rescue initiative, but its proposal did not receive the support of other participants. Arctic Council, EPP Working Group meeting of 18-20 April 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark, minutes of the meeting, 1 June 2005, p. 11-12. As noted below, the development of an international instrument to combat oil pollution aims to bring into force Article 10 of the International Convention on The Preparation, Response and Cooperation in Oil Pollution (OPRC Convention) in relation to the Arctic Ocean. Arctic Council, Senior Arctic Officials (SAO) Report to Ministers, Nuuk, Greenland, May 2011, p. 6. Article 10 of the OPRC Convention does not expressly require the parties to develop a legally binding agreement.